FOOD CROPS. Vietnam cassava achievement and learnt lessons. Nguyen Van Bo, Hoang Kim, Le Quoc Doanh, Tran Ngoc Ngoan, Bui Chi Buu, Rod Lefroy, Le Huy Ham, Mai Thanh Phung, Tran Vien Thong. The report provides information on Production and consumption of cassava over the world and in Vietnam; Achievement and learnt lessons from Vietnam cassava in a half decade of reservation and development; Conclusion. This is the first speech of three of “Cassava in Vietnam: Save and Grow ”. Key workds: Vietnam cassava, cassava production and consumption, achievements and learnt lessons.
Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a crop for food, animal feed, starch processing and currently main raw materials for biofuel processing which has high comparative advantage of many countries in the world and Vietnam. In 2011, there are 100 cassava production countries over the world with total areas of 19.64 million ha, average fresh root yield of 12.83 tons/ha, production of 252.20 million tons (FAO, 2013a). In Vietnam, cassava is an important food crop which ranks the third in terms of production after rice and maize. In 2011, the national cassava area reached 560,000 ha, average yield of 17.63 ton/ha, production of 9.87 million tons (GSO, 2013a) . Global Cassava Conference held in Belgium in 2008 delivered the message: “Cassava is a gift of the world, opportunity for poor farmers and challenge to scientists”(Claude M. Fauquest 2008). Instructions on using cassava to produce starch, bio-ethanol, modified starch, animal feed and bio-film are increasingly interested. Vietnam is complimented on spectacular cassava yield which was increased 400% from 8.5 tons/ha in 2000 to 36 tons/ha in 2011 in many smallholders, according to press release “Cassava’s huge potential as 21st century crops ” by FAO in May 2013, (FAO, 2013b) . Cassava dried chips and starch of Vietnam are ones of ten key export products. Vietnam currently has 13 bio-ethanol factories with capacity of 1067.7 million litres of bio-ethanol per year, 66 industrial starch processing factories, more than 2000 manual processing units (Hoang Kim, Le Huy Ham et al. 2013) . Cassava is a choice of many poor smallholders and people who are living in drought, bad fertile soil and a choice of many processing and trading enterprises thanks to its high profits, easy growing, less caring, low cost, easy harvest and process. Cassava producing, processing, consuming, researching and developing are opportunities, prospects of farmers and enterprises of Vietnam as well as many coutries in the world, however, cassava, at the same time, faces many risks and constraints.
This report provides general information on Production, consumption of cassava in the world and Vietnam; Achievement and cassava learnt lesson of Vietnam in a half decade of reservation and development; Conclusion. This is the first in series of three speeches: “Vietnam cassava, reservation and development”.
Cassava production, consumption in the world and Vietnam
Cassava – a 4F crop of the 21st Century. Cassava is a food crop with 252.20 million tons in production, the 5th rank after maize (883.46 million tons), rice (722.76 million tons), wheat (704.08 million tons) potato (374.38 million tons). 66% of cassava is planted in Africa, 20% in Asia and 14% in Latin America (FAO, 2013) . Cassava is food of more than one billion people in the world, particularly in Africa where cassava is a main food crop. Cassava is a feed crop, flour/ starch processing crop for MSG, instant noodle, candies, sirup, beverage, packages, carton board, pharmaceutical additives, bio-film, soil moisture holders and a main inputs for processing bio-fuel with high comparative advantage (Figure 1 & Figure 2).
Figure 1: Cassava world production in 2008 (FAO 2010, cited by Hoàng Long)
Figure 2. Main crop world production in 2011 (FAO, cited by Hoàng Kim)
Cassava world production. Africa leads cassava production until 2011 reached 140.97 million tons, accounted for 55,90 % total world production of 252.20 million tons. Nigerial is top ranking in this continent with 52.40 million tons in 2011. Asia cassava production is accounted for 30 % of total world production with 3.91 million ha, average yield of 19.60 tons/ha and production of 76.68 million tons. Cassava plays an important role in economy of Thailand, Indonesia, China, Philippines. America is the third cassava production region in the world. Cassava areas in America increased from 2.54 million ha in 2000 to 2.85 million ha in 2005 then decreased to 2.67 million ha in 2011. Average yield of America is 12.88 ton/ha, production is 34.36 million tons in 2011. Brazil is the most production of this continent with 1.74 million ha in 2011, accounted for 65 % cassava areas in America (FAO, 2013) .
Ten countries leading cassava production in the world in 2011 are Nigeria 52.4 million tons. Brazil 25.44 million tons, Indonesia 24.00 million tons, Thailand (21.91 million tons). Republic of Congo (15.56 million tons) Angola (14.33 million tons), Ghana (14.24 million tons), Vietnam (9.87 million tons), India (8.00 million tons), and Mozambique (6.26 million tons).
Figure 3 Vietnam cassava production in comparison with four leading countries
(Hoàng Kim et al. 2013b)
Cassava areas of 10 countries mentioned above are respectively 3,73; 1,74; 1,18; 1,13; 2,17; 1,07; 0,89; 0,56; 0,22; 0,97 million ha. (FAO 2013 a) .
Global cassava production trend. Cassava production increases very fast from 162.48 million tons in 1995 to 252.20 million tons in 2011. Cassava area in 1995 was 16.46 million ha increased to 19.64 million ha in 2011. The world average cassava yield in 1995 was 9.87 ton/ha, increased to 12.84 ton/ha in 2011. (Table 1).
The world cassava import and export. Three leading export countries are Thailand, Vietnam and Indonesia. Thailand accounts for 60- 85% total global cassava export in recent years, followed by Indonesia and Vietnam. Recently Cambodia cassava becomes a prospective export product. China is the most cassava importer for bio-fuel, modified starch, animal feed and pharmaceutical food industries. Main export markets of Thailand are China, Taiwain, Japan and EU with 40% of starch, 25% dried chip and pellets (Hoang Kim, Nguyen Van Bo et al. 2010a).
Cassava market projection. According to cassava global market research of FAO and IFPRI, global cassava production will reach 275,10 million tons in 2020 projectively, mainly in developing countries with 274.7 million tons, in developed countries with 0.40 million tons. Cassava consumption in developing countries will be 254.60 million tons while 20.5 million tons in developed countries. Total cassava volume used for food will be projected at 176.3 million tons and animal feed at 53.4 million tons. Annual demand growth on cassava for food and animal feed are 1.98% and 0.95%. Africa will be still a lead continent with production of 168.6 million tons in 2020. Of which, the volume using for food will be 77.2 %, and animal feed will be 4.4 %. Latin America in period of 1993 - 2020, annual consumption growth rate is tentatively at 1,3 %, in comparison with Africa at 2.44 % and Asia at 0.84 – 0.96 %. Cassava continues to maintain its important role in many Asian countries particularly in Southeast Asia where its cassava areas is the third after rice and maize and its total production is the third after rice and sugar cane. Cassava production trends depend on crop competitiveness. Main solutions are to increase cassava yield through adoption of new varieties and advanced technology (Hoàng Kim, 2013a) .
Cassava production in Vietnam. Cassava is important income sources of poor farmers thanks to its easy cultivation, low requirement on soils, low investment costs, suitability to bio-ecology and farmer’s livelihoods. Cassava is widely grow from the North to the South of Vietnam with more than half of million ha (Table 2) and production of almost 10 million tons (table 3).
+ North Central Coast and South Central Coast: Cassava areas in 2011: 168,600 ha (30,10 % total areas), yield: 17.66 ton/ha and production: 2,977,900 tons of fresh roots (30,15 % total production). The most areas in Binh Thuan, Nghe An, Quang Ngai and Phu Yen.
+ Central Highland Region: Area in 2011: 154,600 ha (27,60 % total area), Yield 16.70 ton/ha, production 2,582,200 tons of fresh roots (26.15 % total production). Cassava is more planted in Gia Lai, Kon Tum, Dak Lak and Dak Nong
+ North provinces: Areas in 2011: 117,200 ha (20.92 % total areas), yield: 12.36 ton/ha, production: 1,448,900 tons of fresh roots (14.67 % total production). Most cultivated in Son La, Yen Bai and Hoa Binh.
+ South Eastern region: Area in 2011: 99,000 ha (17.68 % total area), yield: 25.34 ton/ha the highest in the country, production is 2,536,500 tons of fresh roots (25,68 % total production). Most planted in Tây Ninh, Bình Phước, Đồng Nai, Bà Rịa – Vũng Tàu and Bình Dương.
Figure 4 Graph: Areas of cassava by regions of Vienam.
Figure 5 Vietnam cassava Areas, production (2001 – 2011).
High cassava export turnover in Vietnam. According to custom data, in 2010 total export cassava in 2010 was 1,677 thousand tons cassava and cassava based products. Turnover of 556 million USA. Of which cassava chips accounted for 56,8%, cassava starch: 42,9%. Processed product export is growing and raw product export is decreasing are good signal in the context of many national industries need raw materials and cassava starch price is strongly increasing in the international market. China is the largest market of Vietnam cassava in 2010 accounted for 94,8 % total cassava chip turnover (196.5 million USA) and 90 % of total export of cassava starch (315.4 million USD) (Food crop system of Vietnam, 2011a) . Cassava and cassava based product exports of Vietnam in 2011 was 2.68 million tons (960.2 million USD). In the end of 2012 exports of this product group was 4.23 million tons, increased 57.7% and valued at 1.35 billion USD, increased 40,8 %. China maintains the main market of Vietnam cassava with 3.76 million tons, increased 54.4 % in comparison with previous year and accounted for 88.9 % total export of this product group (custom data, 2013) .
Vietnam cassava achievement and learnt lessons
Vietnam cassava achievement. Yield increasing in the half of recent century (1961-2011) is expressed in fig. 6. Vietnam cassava yield in comparison with the world yield (since 1975) is presented in fig. 7. Cassava production and yield of Vietnam significantly increase in recent years. The production in 2011 was 9.87 million tons from 559.80 thousand ha, average yield: 17.81 ton/ ha (GSO 2013). In 2000, cassav production was 1.98 million tons, yield was 8.35 ton/ ha while the production in 2011 increased 4.98 folds and the yield doubled.
Vietnam cassava yield growth. Cassava yield increased significantly recently. In 1976, the yield was 7.86 ton/ha, in 2000 was 8.35 ton/ha, close to Africa’s yield (8.65 ton/ha) but in 2011 the yield reached to 17.73 ton/ha, much more than the average one in Africa at 10.77 ton/ha and higher than 12.92 tons/ha of America. The one of Vietnam now is lower than that of India (36.47 ton/ha), the leading country in cassava yield of the world, Cambodia (21.30 ton/ ha), Indonesia (20.30 ton/ ha) and Thailand (19.29 ton/ha) but cassava yield of many smallholders in Vietnam reach to 36.00- 50.00 ton/ ha, more than 400% than before.
Fig 6: Vietnam cassava yield in the past half century (1961-2011). Yield growth mainly from 2000.
Fig 7: Vietnam cassava yield and the world from 1975. Impressive yield growth rate since 2000 inVietnam
Tây Ninh is the typical province on yield and production increase that bring huse benefits for farmers and enterprises (Table 4).
Total natural land of Tay Ninh is 404,929 ha, of which agricultural land: 349,064 ha, with 12 types of soil, Grey poor fertile soil group accounted for 83.04% total natural areas, next to that is alluvial soil 5.41% and red yellow soil 3.58%. In 2011, rice area was 155.5 thousand ha (winter spring crop: 45.8 thousand ha, summer autumn crop: 52.9 thousand ha, main crop 56.8 thousand ha) average rice yield: 4,89 tons/ha, Production 760.7 thousand tons (GSO 2013b) . Cassava, peanut, legume, sugarcane are main crops of the province which accounted for 35,0%, 24,2%, 21,3% and 13% in turn. Cassava contributes great deal in income sources of farmers. Good cassava variety is a basic factor which makes the change. Main variety is KM94 accounted for 60% total cassava areas, followed by KM98-5 about 40%, KM419 and others about 10% (Trần Viễn Thông 2011) .
Vietnam cassava reservation and development history. Before 1986, local varieties such as Gòn, Xanh Vĩnh Phú ... were mainly planted. These are good for eating but low yield (about 10 tons/ha), low starch content (20 - 25 %). From 1986 to 1990, HARC collected, selected and introduced three varieties of HL23, HL20 and HL24 mainly for food and feeds with fresh roots yield of 20 - 23 ton/ ha, planted in 70,000 – 80,000 ha annually in the south (Hoàng Kim, Trần Ngọc Quyền, Nguyễn Thị Thủy 1990) . Xanh Vĩnh Phú and sloppy land cultivation practices were early piloted in the north (Nguyễn Văn Tiễn, Trần Ngọc Ngoạn, Đặng Thị Ngoan, Nguyễn Thế Hùng, Nguyễn Hữu Hồng 1994) [30 ]. Cassava contributed significantly into food security particularly in difficult stage of the country (Hoàng Kim, Phạm Văn Biên 1995) . From 1988 to 2012, VNCP collaborated with CIAT and achieved huge results in cassava research and development (Phạm Văn Biên, Hoàng Kim 1998) [1). (Pham Van Bien, Hoang Kim et al. 2007)  (Hoang Kim, Nguyen Van Bo el al 2010) . Eight good cassava varieties were introduced for approval and production. Of which there were 6 domestic and selected: KM60; KM94, KM95; SM937-26 (Trần Ngọc Quyền, Hoàng Kim et al 1995) ; Trần Ngọc Ngoạn 2000 ; Trịnh Phương Loan, Trần Ngọc Ngoạn et al. 1995), KM98-1 (Hoàng Kim, Kazuo Kawano et al 1999)  KM98-7 (Trịnh Thị Phương Loan, Nguyễn Trọng Hiển et al 2008) ; Two of them were bred: KM140 (Trần Công Khanh, Hoàng Kim et al 2007, 2009, 2010) [23, 22] and KM98-5 (Trần Công Khanh, Hoàng Kim et al. 2009) [24 ].
Vietnam has become a distinctive model of Asia and the world in application of selective technology and breeding cassava and setup sustainable cassava production practices. Many good farmers as Hồ Sáu (Tây Hòa, Trảng Bom, Đồng Nai), Tống Quốc Thanh (Sa Nghe, Hảo Đước, Châu Thành, Tây Ninh), Trần Thị Quyền (Hà Tây), Nguyễn Thị Sáu (Hà Tây), Ngô Trung Kiên (Phổ Yên),…who planted cassava with high yield, high profits in many years and became reach thanks to cassava (Kazuo Kawano 2001, 2009) [9,10], Reinhard Howeler 2004, 2008 [34, 35 ]). “Vietnam is a main export agricultural products country and leading in somes with total export agricultural value of 25 billion USD per year. With more than half of million ha, cassava export value is 800-950 million USD per year. CIAT has significant contributions in this results by improving cassava sub-sector of Vietnam”.“At national level, cassava has become a main export product. Millions farmers have been benefited from changes in yield and profits. Variety material from CIAT through selective process and breeding cover 90% of total cassava area of Vietnam.” (Bùi Bá Bổng 2012) .
Vietnam cassava learnt lessons. Three lessons are with drawn from Vietnam Cassava Program: 1) 6M, 10T and Working Together 2) Farmer Participatory Research - 1 F, Cassava in Vietnam: Save and Grow (Hoang Kim, Pham Van Bien et al. 2003, Hoang Kim et al. 2013 [12 ]):
6M 6 linkages (6M in English)
1. Man Power Con người
2. Market Thị trường
3. Materials Giống mới, Công nghệ mới
4. Management Quản lý và Chính sách
5. Methods Phương pháp tổ chức thực hiện
6. Money Tiền
10T Ten experiences in transfer technology (10T in Vietnamese)and Working Together
1) Thử nghiệm (Trials)
2) Trình diễn (Demonstrations)
3) Tập huấn (Training)
4) Trao đổi (Exchange)
5) Thăm viếng (Farmer tours)
6) Tham quan hội nghị đầu bờ (Farmer field days)
7) Thông tin tuyên truyền (Information, propaganda)
8) Thi đua (Competition)
9) Tổng kết khen thưởng (Recognition, price and reward)
10) Thành lập mạng lưới nông dân giỏi(Establish good farmers' network)
2) Nông dân tham gia nghiên cứu (Farmer Participatory Research - FPR)
3) Cassava in Vietnam: Save and Grow
Cassava in Vietnam: Save and Grow TayNinh
Cassava in Vietnam: Save and Grow 1Daklak
Cassava in Vietnam: Save and Grow 2Daklak
Cassava in Vietnam: Save and Grow 3Daklak
Vietnam cassava was developed sustainably in the first years of the 21st century (2000-2013). Cassava achievement of Vietnam is huge: Cassava has been transformed from food crop, feed crop into 4F crop (Food, Feed, Flour, Fuel). At national level, cassava has become main export crop and presented in million smallholders thanks to changes in yield and profits. Cassava material from CIAT through selective and breeding process has covered more than 90% of total cassava areas of Vietnam. Learnt lesson of VNCP, 6M,10T and FPR are collaboration experiences that accelerated bringing advanced technology into production for million poor farmers.
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June 04, 2013, 10:20 P.M http://www.thedominican.net/2013/06/cassava-huge-potential-crop.html
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34. Reinhardt H. Howeler, 2008 Background and general methodology used in the Nippon Foundation project. In: CIAT 2008. Integrated Cassava – base Cropping Systems in Asia- Working with Farmers to Enhance Adoption of More Sustainable Production Practices. Proceedings of the Workshop on the Nippon Foundation Cassava Project in Thailand, Vietnam and China held in Thainguyen, Vietnam. Oct 27-31, 2003. p 5-32
35. Reinhardt Howeler, 2004. Intergrated cassava-based Cropping Systems in Asia: Farming Practices to Enhance Sustainability. End of Project Report Second Phase of the Nippon Foundation Cassava Project in Asia 1999-2003. The Nippon Foundation- CIAT, 120 p.
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