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Chủ Nhật, ngày 04 tháng 5 năm 2008

II. PRESENT SITUATION OF CASSAVA CONSUMPTION IN VIETNAM

2.1 Review of cassava processing and market in Vietnam
Cassava now an important source of cash income to small farmers, who either use it for animal feeding or for sale to starch factories. While eighteen years ago there were no medium- or large-scale cassava starch factories in Vietnam, there are now 60 cassava processing factories in operation with a total processing capacity of 3.2- 4.8 million tones of fresh roots/year. Total cassava starch production in Vietnam was about 800,000- 1,200,000 tones, of which 70% was exported and 30% used domestically.

Vietnam has developed an E10 policy requiring the production of 100 to 150 million liters per year. The Petroleum services and tourism company and Japan’s Itochu Co-operation has signed an MOU to set up a joint venture to build a 100 million liters per year fuel ethanol refinery valued at $100 million using cassava chips as raw material.

Vietnam is now probably the second largest exporter of cassava products, after Thailand with 4.46 and about 0.81 million tones of cassava products exported, respectively. (Table 5).



Cassava export volumes through Quy Nhon Port are 500,000 and 700,000 tons in 2006 and 2007, respectively, of which about 10% provided by Binh Dinh and 90% collected from surrounding province like Phu Yen, Gia Lai, and Quang Ngai, Kom Tum etc. Regarding market channel, it can be seen that though cassava chip in Binh Dinh accounts for small portion (10%) in total export though Quy Nhon Port, Binh Dinh however, have its own advantages of having Port and in collecting chip from surrounding provinces.

In Binh Dinh province in 2007, about 250,541 tons fresh root has been sold in the market (81%). Reporting of farmers: 32% of fresh root has been processed by farmers for exportation; 22% of fresh root farmers sell to processing households, who process starch for domestic consumption; 19% farmers use for animal feeding or domestic consumption such as alcohol, cassava paper cake and so on. There has been only one cassava starch processing company with purchasing capacity of 27% total fresh root.

Major markets of Vietnam’s cassava exports are the P.R. of China and Taiwan, Japan, Singapore, Malaysia, South Korea and countries in Eastern Europe. Besides, animal feed factories also contributed significantly to the increasing demand for cassava roots. Although in Vietnam cassava processing is a relatively new business and export volumes are still low, the cassava processing factories are new and modern. That is why Vietnam’s cassava products may have a competitive advantage in the world market.

2.2 Case study of cassava market in the Central provinces of Vietnam
On average, labour cost accounts for 59.9% of cassava production costs. In some regions, like the Binh Dinh and the Gia Lai, this may be as low as 52.8% and 68.7%, respectively (see Table 6) The average labour requirement is 125 mandays/ha. The second largest cost item is fertilizer, constituting 41.8% in Binh Dinh province and 24.7% in Gia Lai, depending on farmers’ investment in fertilizer. With the selling price of fresh root of 900 VND/kg; farmers can earn 10,720 to 11,200 thousand VND/hectare.



The total variable cost of cultivation in 2007 was about US$ 455- 567.5/ha, at an average root yield of 22.0 t/ha, the production cost would be US$ 20.68- 25.79 /t fresh roots (Table 6). Gross income is US$ 1,155- 1,237.5 /ha. Net income is US$ 670 - 700/ha (Nguyen Van Ngai, Hoang Kim, Le Thanh Loan, Nguyen Van Loi, Nguyen Quoc Bao, 2008).

Cassava export volumes through Quy Nhon Port are 500,000 and 700,000 tons in 2006 and 2007, respectively, of which about 10% provided by Binh Dinh and 90% collected from surrounding province like Phu Yen, Gia Lai, and Quang Ngai, Kom Tum etc. Regarding market channel, it can be seen that though cassava chip in Binh Dinh accounts for small portion (10%) in total export though Quy Nhon Port, Binh Dinh however, have its own advantages of having Port and in collecting chip from surrounding provinces.

In Binh Dinh province in 2007, about 250,541 tons fresh root has been sold in the market (81%). Reporting of farmers: 32% of fresh root has been processed by farmers for exportation; 22% of fresh root farmers sell to processing households, who process starch for domestic consumption; 19% farmers use for animal feeding or domestic consumption such as alcohol, cassava paper cake and so on. There has been only one cassava starch processing company with purchasing capacity of 27% total fresh root.

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